Impact of Corporal Punishment on Students Personality Development
(A Case Study of Male Students at Govt Higher Secondary School no.4 Par Hoti Mardan K.P.K)
M.A (Master of Arts in Sociology)
Department of sociology, AWKUM
DEPARTMENT OF SOCIOLOGY
ABDUL WALI KHAN UNIVERSITY MARDAN
KHYBER PUKHTOON KHWA-PAKISTAN
. Since the beginning of this century, a global tendency to abolish corporal punishment has been introduced to challenge old dependence on corporal punishment as a tool for reforming children’s misbehavior (Global Report, 2008). This tendency was highly supported by the contemporary call for protecting human rights including the right in security and human treatment (articles 3 and 5, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights) and child rights in physical protection (Article 19, Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1990). Although Egypt has achieved noticeable progress in enacting many articles of the convention since signing it, research data denotes a lot of work still needs to be achieved in the sphere of child protection against violence (UNICEF, 2009).
In Pukhtoon society there is a known proverb that “che charta dab ve halta adab ve” it can be translated into English as that “spare the rod and spoil the children” it can be said that corporal punishment is culturally acceptable practice. This expresses the justification of corporal punishment throughout society
Current policy prohibits the use of corporal punishment in school both from the teacher and the student (ministerial decree 591, 1998). The policy states that all kinds of corporal punishment applied on students are completely forbidden otherwise the teacher should be answerable legally. According to article 2 in the decree, the student should be totally expelled in case of any assault on a teacher. The policy was issued in 1998 in reaction to an incident of violence acts practiced by some students against teachers in Nasr City in 1997 which caused 20 students to be totally expelled from public and private education (Salama, 2000). Since the policy was issued till 2000, a number of 90 students have been expelled also due to violent acts against teachers as previous Minister Bahaa El Din confirms that any verbal or physical assault on a teacher will be encountered by complete expulsion to the student from public and private education (Salama, 2000). However, no record tells us if the school administrators applied any legal sanction on teachers punishing students physically since the policy was issued. On the other hand, during academic year 2005/2006, 80 teachers were suspended in reaction to parents’ complaints submitted against them through the Child Help Line 16000 (SRC, 2006). There are also some cases that have acquired a criminal dimension and have been highlighted by media and newspapers like cases of serious injuries or death. Corporal punishment is harming part of a body and inflicting pain to a person because of the offence he has committed. Mostly teachers think that they do well by punishing students. They also believe that it is the best way to motivate students in order to behave more properly. As a matter of fact, long term results of this kind of punishment are to react against or to surrender. Corporal punishment causes students’ mental activities to reduce, play truant from school, increase in reacting against, loss of self-confidence and boldness. Creates cramming qualities in students, they often become aggressive, they do not show respect towards elders. Furthermore, after punishment the students feel humiliated and feel themselves less intelligent.
It is a common observation that children do not know the consequences of the corporal punishment. Children’s’ best modal are their teachers. They copy what they learn at school. For instance, when teachers beat the students, teachers show them it is alright to beat others. Similarly, when the teachers slap them, pinch them, twist their ears, the teachers teach them that violence and anger are the preferred ways to solve problems. In addition, when they beat them with the intent of teaching them a lesson, the teachers tell them the students are failures and the students do not deserve the teachers respect.
1.2 Purpose of the study
Now a day’s corporal punishment in schools is a debatable issue on both electronic and print media. In fact, the concept of corporal punishment is very wide & broad having multidimensional aspects; these aspects have been explained and highlighted differently by various researchers and scholars using their own perspective and ways of research. As it has affected the society and has immediate and far-reaching consequences particularly on the students’ life,personality and generally on society. It is the responsibility of the whole society including government to stop this bad and evil practice; otherwise, the society will have to face the after-results.The teachers provide punishment to the students for the sack of good positive personality development,They want their students to be active intellegent and well educated but for this best ambition the corporal punishment is not a solution.the reaserchers wants to know that for which purpose the teachers prefer to punish the students do they really success in their purpose of the development of students personality.
Further, the study is necessary for the academic requirement and has utmost importance for the researchers. It is also important for the researchers to get experienced in the respective field and related aspect to the issue.
Though there have been conducted a lot of research on this issue yet the issue still exists. It means that there should be some more research activities to solve the problem and address the root causes of the problem. So this research activity will try to address the root effects on students personality development.
Simply the researchers want to highlight the positive and negative impact of corporal punishment regarding students psychological, social, and over all the whole personality development.
1.3 Objectives of the study
To identify the impact of corporal punishment on students personality development.
To clarify the impact of corporal punishment on students physical development.
To identify the teacher behavior towards students attitude.
To know that reasons due to which the students punished
1.3 Hypothesis of the study
Much more provision of corporal punishment higher would be its bad impact on personality development.
Over punishment to students would leads much bad physical development
The flexible behavior of teachers will leads best students attitude.
Much more causes towards corporal punishment would lead poor personality development of students.
1.4 Importance of the study
Children are regarded the future of a nation. Without giving proper attention to children, it remains impossible to get the desired goal. And it is then possible when the children attain quality education. And quality education is attained at schools. When a child goes to school and finds an adjustable environment then he/she likes to stay there, but if the vice versa then he/shedoes not like to attend the school. Research show that Corporal Punishment creates social, mental and physical problems. If corporal punishment is not banned and strictly prohibited at schools then it will create everlasting problems.
The real importance of the study is to know everyone that, the most common effect of corporal punishment is a growing fear of teachers among schools children and therefore a dislike of school. When students are given homework, they only learn the exact words not the hidden message in the lesson because of corporal punishment which cause psychological effects.
Further, the study importance is to aware the public that, corporal punishment leads to bad personality development. Corporal punishment also sends a message to students that violence is alright which results unrest in society. Similarly it also sends a message to students that the punished students are less intelligent or guilty, which is not a good message for the students.
Therefore the researchers want to highlight both the positive and negative impact of corporal punishment on students’ psycho-social, and over all personalitydevelopment.
1.5 Review of related literature
This phenomenon is worthy of being brought to the policy makers’ attention for numerous reasons. First, because it is an increasing phenomena that is being globally combated and still widely used in schools in spite of its legal ban. So, reasons and consequences need to be investigated to reduce the gap between the legislative context and actual practices. Second, corporal punishment is associated with severe possible damages resulting from corporal punishment such as death, serious injuries, besides social and psychological problems. Third, approval of corporal punishment is considered as legitimate violence because it does not apply penalty or consequences on the punishers (Salama, 2000).
Forth, according to the learning by example theory, corporal punishment practiced by figures of authority would teach students violence by example and increase the likelihood of future violence (Moussa & Al Ayesh, 2009). Unfortunately, there are no data that denote active participation from parents in reporting acts of violence from the school. Parents could be unaware of current policy or not sure if the school authority would respond positively to their complaints. The few cases reported show no positive action taken by the school administration towards teachers practicing corporal punishment (El Wady, 2010).
On a global level, research findings reveal that teachers and parents who received corporal punishment are highly likely to use it and approve of its use (Jehle, 2004). Traditionally, parents who think of corporal punishment as being the only tool for discipline are not expected to object to teachers beating their children at school (Jehle, 2004). The process of subordinating immediate wishes, desires, impulses and interests for the sake of more effective and dependable action (Shidler, 2001). It differs from punishment in the sense that punishment is accompanied with force, pain and frustration while discipline implies training and helping the child reach required outcomes, set boundaries for behavior, and practice self-control (WHO, 2009). The widespread nature of physical punishment has brought into question its relevance in the development of aggressive behavior. Almost all individuals are physically punished, yet only a fraction ever develop deviant, violent behavior. However, this fact does not, by itself, merit dismissal of physical punishment as a potentially important variable. To appreciate the potential contribution of near-universal variables such as physical punishment, it is important to distinguish between necessary and sufficient preconditions. There are many universal or nearly universal conditions which are necessary preconditions for the development of rare events. For example, although sexual intercourse is an almost universal behavior, it is associated with a rare event: cervical cancer. Although intercourse does not “cause” cervical cancer in any simple sense, such cancer almost never develops in the absence of intercourse: i.e., nuns almost never contract cervical cancer, while prostitutes do so much more frequently (Skrabanek, 1988).
A case study of female teacher
A female teacher whose son is a student in the same school in which she is working reported to the police that her son who is sick with cancer, virus B and C was beaten by a teacher and had to stay in the hospital for medication. As a result the school administration prevented her from taking her salary until she withdraws her complaint and the school administration accused her of falsifying her certificates to work as a teacher (Mehwar Channel, 2010).
1.6 Universe of the study
This study is limited to Govt Higher Secondary School no.4 par hoti Mardan. Govt Higher Secondary is consist on from class six to matric (class 10). Mardan is a district in the Khyber Pukhtun Khwa Province of Pakistan. The city of Mardan is the head quarter of the district.
Sampling is a smaller representation of the whole population. This will reduced the errors of subjectivity as chances to the whole population will be given and a representative sample will be drawn from it. Stratified random sampling will be use for this research activity. The researcher will collect data from class six to class eight students.
1.8 Sample size
The researcher will be randomly collect data from 50 respondents throughout the research area by stratifying the Govt Higher Secondary no.4 par hoti Mardan into different categories/classes/sections on the basis of its population.
1.9 Tools of data collection
The researchers will be use interview schedule as a tool for data collection and the questions will be based on structured/close ended. And the data will be analyzed and interpreted in the light of the research study.
1.10 Statistical techniques
p style=”text-align: justify”>The study will be both Quantitative and Qualitative in nature and the analysis will be based on the content analysis/descriptive analysis on the data given by the respondents. A research thesis will be prepared as an outcome of the study.
Global Report (2008). “Ending Legalized Violence Against Children“
Convention on the Rights of the Child, (1990), Article 19.
UNICEF (2009): “Parliamentarians act on violence against children in Latin America and the Caribbean” http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/costarica_51065.html
Ministerial Decree no. 591/1998, Prohibiting Violence in Schools.
Salama, Mohamed Tawfik (2000): “Violence in Secondary Schools in Egypt“
Social Research Center (2006): “Towards Policies for Child Protection: A Field Study to Assess Child Abuse in Deprived Communities in Cairo and Alexandria”
Moussa, Rashad & Al Ayesh, Zeinab (2009): “Psychology of Violence against Children“.
El Wady, Nadia (2010): “Corporal Punishment in Schools in Egypt’s Schools: A Personal Testimony” URL: http://nadiaelawady.wordpress.com/2010/04/12/corporal-punishment-in-egypts-schools-a-personal-testimony/
- Jehle, Catherine (2004): “Treatment of Corporal Punishment Acceptability in Public Schools”
Mehwar Channel (2010). TV show Sabaya on: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_G_dsAwh0Qc http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J9VxYsJwoBY&NR=1
Shidler, L. (2001). “Teacher-sanctioned violence“. Childhood Education, 77, 167.
- WHO (2009): “The Universal Report on Prevention of Child Injuries“
- Skrabanek, P. (1988). “Cervical Cancer in Nuns and Prostitutes“. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 41(6), 577-582.
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