Role of ICT
The Role of ICT in Learning
The use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Dutch education is lagging behind expectation and desire. Hence, the advisory ‘Committee On Multimedia In Teacher Training’ (COMMITT, at present PROMMITT), established by the Dutch Minister of Education, has drawn up recommendations on the design of the learning process in the future and the role of ICT to support this process, with a focus on teacher training. The committee argues for a powerful role of teacher training in the process of educational innovation and the implementation of ICT. The teacher training institutes are providing the teachers of the future and the committee assumes that teachers are the key figures in arranging learning processes. The institutes, therefore, have to anticipate new developments and prepare prospective teachers for their future role. The nature and extent to which ICT is being used in education is considered to be a result of synergy between ‘top-down’ and ‘bottom up’ processes. In the latter especially, a contribution of the teacher training institutes can be expected. According to commit, teacher training institutes therefore have to shift their focus from dealing with present education to that of ‘future education’.
ICT is a generic term referring to technologies which are being used for collecting, storing, editing and passing on information in various forms (SER, 1997). A personal computer is the best known example of the use of ICT in education, but the term multimedia is also frequently used. Multimedia can be interpreted as a combination of data carriers, for example video, CD-ROM, floppy disc and Internet and software in which the possibility for an interactive approach is offered (Smeets, 1996).
Generally, the following functions of the use of ICT in education are described in literature (SER, 1998, Mooned and Comers, 1995, Pilot, 1998).
ICT as object. It refers to learning about ICT. Mostly organized in a specific course. What is being learned depends on the type of education and the level of the students. Education prepares students for the use of ICT in education, future occupation and social life.
ICT as an ‘assisting tool’. ICT is used as a tool, for example while making assignments, collecting data and documentation, communicating and conducting research. Typically, ICT is used independently from the subject matter.
ICT as a medium for teaching and learning. This refers tot ICT as a tool for teaching and learning itself, the medium through which teachers can teach and learners can learn. It appears in many different forms, such as drill and practice exercises, in simulations and educational networks.
ICT as a tool for organization and management in schools.
In 1998, OCTO (a Dutch educational research institute) studied the extent in which ICT is actually being used for realizing the above-mentioned functions. The research was carried out on all educational levels in The Netherlands. The present work concentrates on vocational education.
However, given the lack of a sufficient response, a reliable image for the entire sector cannot be given, but an impression of the status quo of the use of ICT in vocational education is possible. (Janssen Reined, 1999). ICT is never being used as a (learning) objective by 33 of 55 teachers; 27 teachers do not use ICT as teaching material and 21 teachers do not use ICT as an aid. If the computer is being used, then this is mainly for the purpose of word processing and exercising the lessons. Thus, it seems that the computer is being used especially for supporting more traditional educational settings (Janssen Reined, 1999).
ICT-skills partly necessary for using ICT in education:
Looking at the afore mentioned research results, it seems unnecessarily to argue for specific ICT-skills for teachers as a key for the problems experienced by the implementation of ICT in education. How to implement ICT in education mainly seems to be a design-problem (how does a teacher create a powerful learning environment?)
Required competences for solving this problem are defined within the concept of core problems. Core problems can be defined as the central problems and dilemmas in professional practice as regularly encountered by professionals and thus characteristic of the profession (Onstenk, 1997). Core problems are an interesting basis for education, because they define the professional core and structure and select the professional content. The professional, as an acting individual, is positioned in the centre.
To guide learning processes can be mentioned as one of the core problems of future education (compare paragraph 1.5.2). One of the dilemmas the teacher has to cope with is whether he should ‘direct’ students learning processes or ‘leave students at their own devices’. A student has to work as independently as possible, but when should a teacher intervene? And in what way can a student accomplish the best (independent) learning activity? How should the teaching- learning process be formed to establish the best learning achievements? The teacher has to constantly consider which teaching aids or materials are most suitable to use. Other dilemmas will arise. For example, how much a teacher has to know about each ICT application (to be aware that the application is available or to know how to use it). Another dilemma concerns the question whether the teacher develops the teaching material himself or lets someone else do it for him.
A teacher requires many educational and didactical skills to deal with questions adequately (compare Ministerial OC&W, 1998). In concrete terms, it concerns matters like:
A great pedagogical, didactical an educational psychological craftsmanship.
To be a professional on the subject matter (vocational content)
A large knowledge of (the application possibilities of) modern educational tools.
Skilled to ‘cut to size’ of student guiding processes (e.g., formulating assignments, structuring the guiding process, assessment etc.)
The new learning environment differs from the one we are familiar with; the teacher has to cope with many more uncertainties. A curriculum in which lessons and content are fixed no longer exists. As a result, the teacher has to organize his work in another way (working in projects is mentioned explicitly). Moreover, the teacher cannot create new learning environments completely independently (anymore). He has to depend on al kinds of things like the technical infrastructure, timetables and the activities of other teachers. In doing so, the teacher looses a part of his autonomy (another core problem) and therefore, he is forced to collaborate with his colleagues in a way entirely different from that he was used to.
It requires skills like:
Logistic skills (e.g. for assigning work- and study places and grouping students)
Skills for working in projects
Administrative and organizational sills
ICT enables self-paced learning through various tools such as assignment, computer etc as a result of this the teaching learning enterprise has become more productive and meaningful. ICT helps facilitate the transaction between producers and users by keeping the students updated and enhancing teachers capacity and ability fostering a live contact between the teacher and the student through e-mail, chalk session, e-learning, web-based learning including internet, intranet, extranet, CD-ROM, TV audio-videotape. Educate technology has become very powerful media for interactive participation of experts and learners and it reaches the unreachable. Emerging learning Technology (ELT) of bogging, Integrated Learning A Modules, a pod cast, Wikis, Enhancement of Browsers, e-learning, M-learning, U-learning have started making rapid strides in teaching learning processes.
We are living in a constantly evolving digital world. ICT has an impact on nearly every aspect of our lives – from working to socializing, learning to playing. The digital age has transformed the way young people communicate, network, seek help, access information and learn. We must recognize that young people are now an online population and access is through a variety of means such as computers, TV and mobile phones.
As technology becomes more and more embedded in our culture, we must provide our learners with relevant and contemporary experiences that allow them to successfully engage with technology and prepare them for life after school.
It is widely recognized that learners are motivated and purposefully engaged in the learning process when concepts and skills are underpinned with technology and sound pedagogy. Education Scotland provides advice on resources for practitioners, parents and pupils to engage with these technologies in order to inform and enhance the learning experience.
These resources include, but are not limited to:
Glow – the world’s first national schools intranet which provides access to a range of tools and resources for pupils and practitioners
examples of innovative uses of technology in practice, including game based learning through computer games and the use of mobile technologies
support and advice on internet safety and responsible use for all
video material on iTunes
communication via social media tools such as Twitter and Face book.
Question:02 Visiting To Primary School?
Answer: Visiting to primary school:
I visited to Govt. Primary School Par Hoti Mardan on 3rd febuarary 2016 at 08:30 am. I observed the condition of this primary school very well. I met with the school teachers from whom I asked a few question regarding their school discipline , students interaction, attitudes etc. the teachers participated very will with me. The situation which I observed and I discussed with them (teachers &students) are as under:
when I went to school the student’s were busy in their prey (assembly) activity I stand silent for few time. The way they were acting was really impressive at the end of assemly they were moving to their class rooms very actively.
How teachers teaches:
when I met with their teachers
I spent some time with them
I asked the secret of students activeness I assumed that teachers cooperated very well with their students, and struggling for their bright future . they take care of their students physical mental and social activities.
How they keeps student’s motivate :
During conversation with teachers I asked regarding students motivation I assesd that teachers struggling with students from the core of their hearts, and organising different functions for their students motivation.
Student’s interaction with teachers:
The students of this primary school was maintaining interaction with their teachers very well, they respecting their teachers like their elders, they are very obedient to their teachers. The teachers were very friendly with students and they were very happy at school timing.
Student’s interaction with peers:
whenever I was looking to them , in the way they were interacting with each other like their own brothers. I was really surprised from their interaction in class rooms . I never saw the childeren’s like this.they were very respectfully students . I asked few students some questions to test them in their learning ,in the way thay were answering to me were very polite .the students responsed to my questions in the rigfht way I never saw the students like this in my life the whole credit goes to their teachers ,parents regarding their performance in academic, physical ,mental and social activities.
Anu Sharma, Kapil Gandhar, Sameer Sharma, Seema role of ICT.
A.K.JagerandA.H.Lokman Stoas Research, Wageningen, impact of ICT’s The Netherlands